Heterotopic ossification in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: Input from histological findings
A high incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) has been reported in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), a metabolic disease characterized by calcifications of entheses at spine and peripheral sites. We performed histological and immunohistochemical analyses in five different HO sites in a patient with DISH to study a possible mutual interaction of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and decorin, crucial for bone mass increasing, matrix calcification, and endochondral bone formation. We speculated that the surgical trauma triggered HO, inducing TGF-β release at the lesion site. TGF-β recruits osteoblast precursor cells and determines the overexpression of BMP-2 in the surrounding skeletal muscle, inducing a further osteogenic differentiation, contributing to HO onset.
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