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The innervation pattern in the buffalo testis was determined by using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nerves were concentrated in the tunica albuginea and septula testis, and did not show an uniform distribution. The tunica albuginea at the lateral and medial sides and at the free border of the testis is most densely innervated than at the epididymal border. At the cranial pole thick nerve bundles were observed between albugineal vessels and muscle bundles. Rare parenchymal nerves were found in perivascular position between seminiferous tubules and their occurrence is confined to lobules at the cranial and caudal testicular poles. An intense NPY immunoreactivity occurred in nerve bundles and in solitary varicose fibres. Nerves were concentrated in the tunica albuginea at the lateral and medial side and at the free border of the testis, and in the lobules at the cranial and caudal testicular poles. Sub P immunoreactivity was occasionally detected in some thicker nerve bundles and solitary fibers, in the tunica albuginea and in the wall of blood vessels, showing a similar distribution but less intensity and density than NPY immunoreactivity. TH immunoreactivity stained nerve fibers in the buffalo testis with a distribution pattern similar to that obtained with general neuronal markers. The histochemical reaction for AchE was negative, so cholinergic fibers cannot be detected in the buffalo testis. The histochemical NADPHd reaction stained rare nitrergic nerve bundles and solitary fibers. The majority of NADPHd activity was confined to the vascular endothelium, and rarely to the interstitial Leydig cells, whereas the Sertoli and germ cells did not show any reaction.
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