PACAP in developing sensory and peripheral organs of the zebrafish, Danio rerio
AbstractThe anatomical distribution of PACAP-like immunoreactivity was investigated in sensory and peripheral organs of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, during the pharyngula, hatching and larval periods, by using indirect immunofluorescence methods. First PACAP-like immunoreactive (ir) elements appeared during the pharyngula period, at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), within the most superficial layer of the retina and the dorsal aorta. At 48 hpf, additional ir cells were found in the olfactory placode and esophagus. At 72 hpf (hatching period), PACAP-like immunoreactivity was first detected in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, the otic sensory epithelium, pharyngeal arches, swim bladder and pancreatic progenitor cells. During day 5 of larval development, new groups of ir cells appeared in the liver, whereas no ir elements were observed in the olfactory placode. Subsequently, at day 13 of larval development, additional ir elements were found for the first time in some gut epithelial cells while those previously observed in the retina and otic sensory epithelium were absent. The transient expression of PACAP-like ir material in sensory organs suggests that the peptide could be implicated in neurotrophic activities and neurosensorial connections in the migration and/or differentiation processes. The appearance of PACAP-like ir elements in peripheral organs at different developmental stages, indicates that this peptide could be involved in the control of more specific functions as soon as these peripheral structures begin to operate.
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Copyright (c) 2009 M Mathieu, L Girosi, M Vallarino, G Tagliafierro
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