Upregulation of cardiac NO/NOS system during short-term hypoxia and the subsequent reoxygenation period
AbstractHypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) reportedly influences nitric oxide (NO) production and NO synthase (NOS) expression in the heart. Nonetheless, a number of works have shown controversial results regarding the changes that the cardiac NO/NOS system undergoes under such situations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the behaviour of this system in the hypoxic heart by investigating seven different reoxygenation times. Wistar rats were submitted to H/R (hypoxia for 30 min; reoxygenation of 0, 2, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, and 5 days) in a novel approach to address the events provoked by assaults under such circumstances. Endothelial and inducible NOS (eNOS and iNOS) mRNA and protein expression, as well as enzymatic activity and enzyme location were determined. NO levels were indirectly quantified as nitrate/nitrite, and other S-nitroso compounds (NOx), which would act as NO-storage molecules. The results showed a significant increase in eNOS mRNA, protein and activity, as well as in NOx levels immediately after hypoxia, while iNOS protein and activity were induced throughout the reoxygenation period. These findings indicate that, not only short-term hypoxia, but also the subsequent reoxygenation period upregulate cardiac NO/NOS system until at least 5 days after the hypoxic stimulus, implying major involvement of this system in the changes occurring in the heart in response to H/R.
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Copyright (c) 2011 A. Rus, M.L. Del Moral, F. Molina, M.A. Peinado
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