European Journal of Histochemistry <h3>The Proceedings of the <a href=""><strong>Italian Society for the Study of Connective Tissues (SISC) Meeting, Pavia, 26-27 October 2018</strong></a> are now available.</h3> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US European Journal of Histochemistry 1121-760X <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Seasonal expressions of prolactin, prolactin receptor and STAT5 in the scented glands of the male muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) <p>Prolactin (PRL) production in mammals has been demonstrated in extrapituitary gland, which can activate autocrine/paracrine signaling pathways to regulate physiological activity. In the current study, we characterized the gene expression profiles of PRL, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) in the scented glandular tissues of the muskrats, to further elucidate the relationship between PRL and the scented glandular functions of the muskrats. The weight and volume of the scented glands in the breeding season were significantly higher than those of the non-breeding season. Immunohistochemical data showed that PRL, PRLR and STAT5/phospho-STAT5 (pSTAT5) were found in the glandular and epithelial cells of the scented glands in both seasons. Furthermore, we found that PRL, PRLR and STAT5 had higher immunoreactivities in the scented glands during the breeding season when compared to those of the non-breeding season. In parallel, the gene expressions of PRL, PRLR and STAT5 were significantly higher in the scented glands during the breeding season than those of the non-breeding season. The concentrations of PRL in scented glandular tissues and sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and their levels were both notably higher in the breeding season than those of the non-breeding season. These findings suggested that the scented glands of the muskrats were capable of extrapituitary synthesis of PRL, which might attribute PRL a specific function to an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mediator.</p> Wenqian Xie Hong Liu Qian Liu Qiong Gao Fuli Gao Yingying Han Zhengrong Yuan Haolin Zhang Qiang Weng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 63 1 10.4081/ejh.2019.2991 Epithelial expression of the hormone leptin by bovine skin <p>Leptin (Lep) stimulates keratinocytes to proliferate, intervenes in the wound healing and participates to hair follicle morphogenesis and cycle. While it is secreted by skin structures including epidermis and hair follicles, intradermal adipose tissue also seems to have a role in Lep secretion and accordingly in the control of hair follicle growth in mice and humans. Lep was investigated in the skin of humans and laboratory animals but there are not data regarding bovine species. The aim of this work was to study the expression of Lep and its receptor (LepR) in the skin of bovine and, at the same time, to investigate the presence and extension of intradermal adipose tissue. A morphological evaluation of the skin was performed while the presence and localization of Lep and LepR were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. A high and thick dermis without adipocytes was observed. Hair follicles and sebaceous and sweat glands were located in the proximal part of the skin while a thick layer of connective tissue, lacking adipose cells, separated these structures by subcutis. RT-PCR evidenced the transcripts for both molecules. By immunohistochemistry, Lep and LepR were observed in the epidermis and hair follicles. Based on the absence of intradermal adipose tissue and the presence of both Lep and LepR in the epidermis and in the hair follicle epithelium, it can be posited that in bovine skin Lep participates to the control of epidermis growth and hair follicle cycle through a paracrine and autocrine mechanisms.</p> Francesca Mercati Cecilia Dall'Aglio Ludovica Timperi Paola Scocco Elena De Felice Margherita Maranesi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 63 1 10.4081/ejh.2019.2993 Antigen retrieval pre-treatment causes a different expression pattern of Cav3.2 in rat and mouse spinal dorsal horn <p>Ca<sub>v</sub>3 channels consist of three isoforms, Ca<sub>v</sub>3.1 (α1G), Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 (α1H), and Ca<sub>v</sub>3.3 (α1I), which produce low-threshold spikes that trigger burst firings in nociceptive neurons of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Although Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 plays a crucial role in pathological pain, its distribution in SDH still remains controversial. One study showed that Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 is ubiquitously expressed in neurons, but another study implied that Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 is expressed restricted to astrocytes. To unravel these discrepancies, we used methods of immunohistochemistry either with or without antigen retrieval (AR) pre-treatment to detect Ca<sub>v</sub>3 in SDH and DRG from both rats and mice. Moreover, Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 mRNA was detected in mice SDH using <em>in situ</em> hybridization. We found that the expression pattern of Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 but not Ca<sub>v</sub>3.1 and Ca<sub>v</sub>3.3 in SDH were largely different with or without AR pre-treatment, which showed a neuron-like and an astrocyte-like appearance, respectively. Double staining further demonstrated that Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 was mainly co-stained with the neuronal marker NeuN in the presence of AR but was with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, marker for astrocytes) in the absence of AR pre-treatment. Importantly, Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 mRNA was mainly co-localized with Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 but not GFAP. Together, our findings indicate that AR pre-treatment or not impacts the expression pattern of Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2, which may make a significant contribution to the future study of Ca<sub>v</sub>3.2 in SDH.</p> Xiao E Cheng Long Xian Ma Xiao Jin Feng Meng Ye Zhu Da Ying Zhang Lin Lin Xu Tao Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-23 2019-01-23 63 1 10.4081/ejh.2019.2988 Morphological and ultrastructural analysis of normal, injured and osteoarthritic human knee menisci <p>The human meniscus plays a crucial role for transmission and distribution of load across the knee, as well as shock absorption, joint stability, lubrication, and congruity. The aim of this study was to compare the complex geometry, and unique ultrastructure and tissue composition of the meniscus in healthy (control) and pathological conditions to provide understanding of structural changes that could be helpful in the future design of targetted therapies and improvement of treatment indications. We analyzed meniscus samples collected from 3 healthy multi-organ donors (median age, 66 years), 5 patients with traumatic meniscal tear (median age, 41 years) and 3 patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) for end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) (median age, 72 years). We evaluated the extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, the appearance and distribution of areas of calcification, and modifications of cellular organization and structure by electron microscopy and histology. The ECM structure was similar in specimens from traumatic meniscus tears compared to those from patients with late-stage OA, showing disorganization of collagen fibers and increased proteoglycan content. Cells of healthy menisci showed mainly diffuse chromatin and well preserved organelles. Both in traumatic and in OA menisci, we observed increased chromatin condensation, organelle degeneration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization, a portion of which contained markers of autophagic vacuoles. Areas of calcification were also observed in both traumatic and OA menisci, as well as apoptotic-like features that were particularly prominent in traumatic meniscal tear samples. We conclude that meniscal tissue from patients with traumatic meniscal injury demonstrate pathological alterations characteristic of tissue from older patients undergoing TKR, suggesting that they have high susceptibility to develop OA.</p> Michela Battistelli Marta Favero Debora Burini Giovanni Trisolino Dante Dallari Lucia De Franceschi Steven R. Goldring Mary B. Goldring Elisa Belluzzi Giuseppe Filardo Brunella Grigolo Elisabetta Falcieri Eleonora Olivotto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 63 1 10.4081/ejh.2019.2998 Deleted in Liver Cancer 2 (DLC2) protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma <p>Deleted in Liver Cancer (DLC) proteins belong to the family of RhoGAPs and are believed to operate as negative regulators of the Rho family of small GTPases. So far, the role of the first identified member from the DLC family, DLC1, was established as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma. The function of its close family relative, DLC2 is unequivocal. In the present study we attempted to determine whether the loss of DLC2 is a common feature of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. We examined two types of hepatocellular carcinoma- typical and fibrolamellar one. Our analysis revealed that DLC2 protein is not diminished in cancer tissue when compared to non-cancerous liver specimens. What is more, we observed DLC2 to be more abundantly expressed in cancer tissue, particularly in tumors with the inflammation background. In addition, we found that <em>DLC2</em> gene status was diploid in virtually all tumor samples examined. Our results indicate that DLC2 is not diminished in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It appears that members of the DLC family, although structurally highly related, may function differently in cancer cells.</p> Dominika Wolosz Agnieszka Walczak Grzegorz Szparecki Michal Dwojak Magdalena Winiarska Ewa Wolinska Barbara Gornicka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 63 1 10.4081/ejh.2019.2981 Cell Migration - Methods and Protocols <p>As the title suggests, this book presents several techniques to study cells migration in vivo, in vitro, ex vivo and with different model systems to dissect many of the biochemical and biophysical properties (at both molecular and cellular levels) involved in the dynamics of migration and cell-to-cell communication...</p> Manuela Monti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 63 1 10.4081/ejh.2019.3013 Sertoli Cells - Methods and Protocols <p>The mammalian somatic cell providing the physiological milieu to germ cells growth and differentiation is the Sertoli cell, named after the Italian physiologist Enrico Sertoli. Sertoli described for the first time this functionally multitasking cell in 1865 (when he was 23 years-old!) in human testicular tissues while ending up his medicine studies at the University of Pavia...</p> CarloAlberto Redi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 63 1 10.4081/ejh.2019.3014